Vol. 8, Issue 2, Decembar 2012.



Mlan Čoh1
1Faculty of Sport, University of Ljubljana, Slovenia


doi: 10.5550/sgia.120802.en.151C


FULL TEXT (.pdf)

Walking and running are natural way of human motion. Today running is effective aerobic exercise to maintain vital human functions, mostly cardiovascular and breathing functions. Modern human’s lack of movement results in numerous health problems and generally reduce the quality of his life. The impact of regular physical exercise on the body is proven beyond any doubt; but we can also see the growing negative effects of physical exercise, which are typically a result of the unadjusted and to demanding exercise programs. Walking and running are human’s the most effective and health activities, but running can have large load on joints, bones, tendons, ligaments and muscular system. The negative effects of physical exercise are manifested in the form of overload which often leads to injuries. Running injuries and their development takes place at the beginning relatively unnoticed, obvious symptoms with pronounce consequences for the runner occur relatively late.  Identifying overload factors of the human can help runners and all other athletes who run in their sport disciplines; it is a huge challenge for sports science. Correct and in time answers on overload can have important contribution to a more humane and safe practice.


Key words: running, biomechanics, overtraining syndrom.



Auersperger, I., Knap. B., Jerin, A., Blagus, R., Lainšček, M., Skitek, M., & Škof, B. (2012) . The effects of 8 weeks of endurance running on hepcidin concentrations, inflammatory parameters and iron status in female runners. Int. j. sport nutr. exerc. metab, 22(1), 55–63. PMid: 22248501
Auersperger, I., Ulaga, M., & Škof, B. (2009). An expert model for determining success in middle-distance running = Ekspertni model uspešnosti za teke na srednje proge. Kinesiol. Slov., 15(2), 5–15.
Cavagna, G. A., Komarek, L., & Mazzoleni, S. (1971). The mechanics of sprint running. Journal of Pysiology, 217, 709–721. PMid: 5098087; PMCid: 1331572
Daoud, A., Geissler, F., Wang, F., Saretsy, J., Daoud, Y., & Lieberman, D. (2012). Foot strike and injury rates in endurance runners: a retrospective study. MedSci Sports Exerc, 44(7), 1325–1334. P Mid:22217561
DeRuisseau, K. C., Roberts, L. M., Kushnik, M. R., Evans, A. M., Austin, K., & Haymes, E. M. (2004). Iron status of young males and females performing weight-training exercise. Med Sc Sports Exerc, 36(2), 241–248.
doi: 10.1249/01.MSS.0000113483.13339.7B
; PMid: 14767246
Divert, C., Mornieux, G., Freychat, P., Baly, L., Mayer, F., & Belli, A. (2008). Barefoot-shod running differences: shoe or mass effect? Int J Sports Med., 29(6), 512-518. doi: 10.1055/s-2007-989233; PMid: 18027308
Donatti, A. (1995). The development of stride lenght and  frequency in sprinting. New Studies in Athletics, 10(1), 51–66.
Foot strikes and injury rates. (2012). Retrived from
Halson S., & Jeukendrup, A. (2004). Does overtraining exist? An Analysis of overreaching and overtraining research. Sports Med, 34(14), 967–981. doi: 10.2165/00007256-200434140-00003
Hartmann, U., & Mester, J. (2000). Training and overtraining markers in selected sport events. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 32(1), 209–215. doi: 10.1097/00005768-200001000-00031
Hasegawa, H., Takeshi, Y., & Kramer, W. (2007). Foot Strike Patterns of Runners the 15 km  Point During An Elite Lavel Half Marathon. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, l21(3), 880–893. doi: 10.1519/R-22096.1;
doi: 10.1519/00124278-200708000-00040
Enoka, R. (2003). Neuromechanics of human movement. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Komi, P., & Nicol, C. (2000). Stretch –shortening cycle fatigue. In B. McIntosh and B. Nigg (Eds.), Biomechanics and Biology of Movement (pp. 385–408). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Lieberman, D. E., Venkadesan, M., Werbel, W. A., Daoud, A. I., D'Andrea, S., ... Pitsiladis, Y. (2009). Foot strike patterns and collision forces in habitually barefoot versus shod runners. Nature, 463, 531–535.
doi: 10.1038/nature08723; PMid: 20111000
Mero, A., Komi, P., & Gregor, R. (1992). Biomechanics of Sprint Running. Sport Medicine, 13(6), 376-392.
doi: 10.2165/00007256-199213060-00002
Mujika, I. (2009). Tapering and peaking for optimal performance. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.
Novacheck, T. (1998). The biomechanics of running. Gait and Posture, 7, 77–95.
doi: 10.1016/S0966-6362(97)00038-6

Škof, B., & Strojnik V. (2007). The effect of two warm-up protocols on some biomechanical parameters of the neuromuscular system of middle distance runners. J. strength cond. res., 21(2), 394–399.
doi: 10.1519/00124278-200705000-00018; doi: 10.1519/R-18055.1; PMid: 17530940
Urhausen A., & Kindermann W. (2002). Diagnosis of overtraining. What tools do we have? Sports Med, 32(2), 95–102.
Vertical ground reaction force in the touch-down and take-off phases. (2012). Retrived from http://www.
Zatsiorsky, V., & Kraemer, W. (2006). Science and Practice of Strength Training. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.