Vol. 16, Issue 1, december 2020.




Bernarda Letnar1
1Danila Kumar Primary School, Slovenia

UDK: 612:796



The shoulder joint is the most flexible joint in the human body which experiences high loads during certain sport activities involving overhead motion. Overhead athletes experience rapid shoulder elevation, abduction and external rotation during the movement and rapid deceleration after the movement, making them susceptible to shoulder injuries. Due to the extreme ranges of motion, overhead athletes tend to develop increased external rotation, combined with decreased range of internal rotation, emphasizing the need for balanced shoulder care program in the training process to prevent such occurrences. The aim of the research paper was to develop training regimen for injury prevention and shoulder maintenance that can be incorporated in daily training activities of the athletes in order to decrease the occurrence of injuries. Three part training program was designed consisting of specific warm up, strengthening and stabilization exercises and stretching exercises. The aim of the specific warm up was to prepare the shoulder for the training loads, mimicking the overhead movements and stimulating the stabilization in the joint. Strengthening and stabilization exercises aimed to strengthen external rotators in the shoulder and improve the stabilization of the shoulder joint by targeting specific muscles such as serratus anterior. The focus of stretching exercises was to stretch internal rotation muscles, which experience high loads in the overhead athlete's training. An effective training program that can be performed with minimal equipment and in a short time frame was designed to enable its simple incorporation into the daily training of overhead athletes

Key words: shoulder, overhead athlete, shoulder injuries, injury prevention

FULL TEXT (.pdf)



Cho, S., Baek, I., Cheon, J. Y., Cho, M. J., Choi, M. Y., & Jung, D. H. (2014). Effect of the push-up plus (PUP) exercise at different shoulder rotation angles on shoulder muscle activities. Journal of physical therapy science, (11), 1737-1740.[CrossRef]
PMid:25435689 PMCid:PMC4242944
Johnson L. (1992). Patterns of shoulder flexibility among college baseball players. Journal of athletics training, 27(1), 44-45, 48-49.
Laudner, K.G., Sipes, R.C., Wilson, J.T. (2008). The acute effects of sleeper stretches on shoulder range of motion. Journal of athletics training, 43(4), 359-63.[CrossRef]
PMid:18668168 PMCid:PMC2474815
Lee, S., Lee, D., Park, J. (2013). The effect of hand position changes on electromyographic activity of shoulder stabilizers during push-up plus exercise on stable and unstable surfaces. Journal of physical therapy science, 8, 981-984.[CrossRef]
PMid:24259898 PMCid:PMC3820220
Lintner, D., Mayol, M., Uzodinma, O., Jones, R., & Labossiere, D. (2007). Glenohumeral internal rotation deficits in professional pitchers enrolled in an internal rotation stretching program. The American journal of sports medicine, 35(4), 617-21.[CrossRef]
Ludewig, P. M., Hoff, M. S., Osowski, E. E., Meschke, S.A., & Rundquist, P. J. (2004). Relative balance of serratus anterior and upper trapezius muscle activity during push-up exercises. The American journal of sports medicine, 2, 484-93.[CrossRef]
Manske, R. C, Meschke, M., Porter, A., Smith, B., & Reiman, M. (2010).  A randomized controlled single-blinded comparison of stretching versus stretching and joint mobilization for posterior shoulder tightness measured by internal rotation motion loss. Sports health, 2(2), 94-100.[CrossRef]
PMid:23015927 PMCid:PMC3445079
Manske, R., Wilk, E. K., Davies, G., Ellenbecker, T., & Reinold, M. (2013). Glenohumeral motion deficits: friend or foe? International journal of sports physical therapy, 8(5), 537-553.
Reinold, M. M., Gill, T. J., Wilk, K. E., & Andrews, J. R. (2010). Current concepts in the evaluation and treatment of the shoulder in overhead throwing athletes, Part 2: injury prevention and treatment. Sports health, 2(1), 39-50.[CrossRef]
PMid:23015922 PMCid:PMC3438857
Wilk, K. E., Meister, K., & Andrews J. R. (2002). Current concepts in the rehabilitation of the overhead throwing athlete. The American journal of sports medicine, 1, 136-151.[CrossRef]

To cite this article:
Letnar, B. (2020). Strengthening and stabilization exercise in prevention of shoulder injuries. Sportlogia 16 (1), 149-160.

Received: 31.10.2020.
Accepted: 17.11.2020.

Bernarda Letnar, prof.
Teacher at Danila Kumar Primary School